Department of Agriculture, Farm Service Agency 1400 Independence Avenue, S. In this article, on behalf of such references, different international strategies for infrastructure protection management are shown. Experience has demonstrated that direct transposition of risk assessment and risk management frameworks e. The relationship between environment and security now is a common interest among both the scientific and policymaking communities, supported by the fact that the traditional security concepts based on territorial integrity and political sovereignty have been revisited following the changes in the geopolitical landscape at the end of the last century. Assessment of the Impact of the 1983 Red Book. The three major approaches to acceptable risk decisions are professional judgment where technical experts devise solutions, bootstrapping where historical precedent guides decision making and formal analyses where theory-based procedures for modeling problems and calculating the best decision are used.
Friends to whom the issue is important, but not essential for survival. Whilst the focus of this chapter is on sediment risk management, this can only be achieved within the context of its broader milieu. Usually, objective parameters can be formalized and transformed into a oneattribute scheme. Working Through Environmental Conflict: the Collaborative Learning Approach. Objectives to be met during management generally fall under the following categories: 1 meeting regulatory criteria e. Relentless pressure on costs is now a fixture in all public decision making.
Environmental Security, Critical Infrastructure and Risk Assessment 11 Findings of acceptable or unacceptable risk drive risk reduction efforts, regulatory compliance determinations, as well as complex and expensive litigation. Boston, Massachusetts and Seattle, Washington, U. Development generates pressures on the ecological, social and economic environment and often brings conflicts among different stakeholders with an impact to the environment. The focus of any safety concern e. Wachtel to present his plan, which is both economical as well as environmentally sound. Stakeholder groups can be expected to seek new ways to further their agendas.
Decision Evaluation for Complex Risk Networked Systems Development Progress T. This definition clearly distinguishes environmental security from environmental protection; the former addresses the balance between human socioeconomic needs and technology and the latter addresses the application of technical solutions to preserve a specific level of environmental quality. Pollution Stress to Siberian Forests; S. The other three scenarios tell their own unique and different story of the future. These include a wide range of anthropogenic disturbances, changing national values and geopolitical events. In theory, environmental decision-making to ensure environmental security should be performed through a systematic, transparent, logical and rational approach.
Currently, environmental management philosophy is evolving toward examination of critical environmental problems over larger spatial scales and assessment of the cumulative risk resulting from multiple problem sources. Such stakeholders may come from many fields regulators, dredgers, fishermen, shippers, environmentalists and the general public, among others and all should have input. Anisimov 409 viii Table of Contents Investigation of Discharge of Fresh Water in the Canakkale Strait Dardanelles -Turkey A. Exposure and effects are the primary factors for describing what could happen to an organism or population under risk. The focus on a single forecast of an uncertain future is based on an understandable desire for one right answer. Evaluating complex technical data and developing feasible risk management options requires procedural flexibility that may not be part of existing evaluative structures.
In order to fully understand how these two issues relate, one needs to understand how the concept of acceptable risk developed, its application to risk assessment and risk management, and its relationship to environmental security and critical infrastructure. Key Challenges and Future Research Needs Societies that engage their citizens in technical discussions concerning environmental security require a realistic, robust and systematic way to hold such discussions. When there is little uncertainty and the consequences of being wrong about these uncertainties is minor, any sort of standard decision making method will do. Regulations Preambles to Final Rules. Risk analysis, these experts have argued, offers a relatively objective, unbiased, and rational approach to framing and solving complex problems. Coastal Areas: Challenges and Solutions. In order to meet the different requirements of the specific applications there are mobile, ground, marine or aerial tools such as sensors, vehicles, single or network both manned and unmanned.
A Model for Optimal Industrial Wastewater Treatment as a Tool for Managing Port Environmental Security and Sustainability N. We have created a climate change scenario that although not the most likely, is plausible, and would challenge United States national security in ways that should be considered immediately. Acceptable risks for ecological risk assessment can be a single value for individual organisms e. Environmental And Human Security In The Mediterranean Jacques Ganoulis Part 2. On the other hand, if the odds are one in a thousand that regular inhalation of gasoline vapors that are 2 percent benzene will be fatal, a reasonable person might well consider the risk significant and take the appropriate steps to decrease or eliminate it. The convergence of critical infrastructure, environmental security, risk assessment and risk management is a function of the perception that these fields are inextricably interrelated and the need to make complex decisions based on multiple criteria as part of the risk management process.
The second solution that has been discussed is desalination, either on a local Israeli level or in cooperation and coordination with Jordan. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 10 3 :204-243. Lead Contamination of Russian Cities: Assessment of Risk to Children's Health; A. This paper reviews the role of risk analysis and decision analysis in addressing the complex environmental problems. Evaluation of the effectiveness of these approaches and tools in the current framework of environmental management is important to verify their appropriateness and identify possible future needs to address environmental security.
Much work remains to be done, and must be done, lest we experience the same fate as our ancestors. Note a, b, c and d in circles correspond to process steps in Figure 1a. Nevertheless, our review and current research shows that more work is necessary to address methodology and application of risk assessment and environmental security to emerging threats in general and specifically in the Middle East. Part 2: Health Consequences of Air Pollution. Which actions and events are controllable; which are not? European Journal of Operational Research 147 1 , 117-127. On the one hand, I can mention a cooperation between the Palestinian city of Tulkarm and the Israeli regional council of Bat-Hefer.
In the absence of a systematic and transparent decisionmaking framework that offers clear solutions founded on sound scientific tools and approaches, the security of the population and the environment may be jeopardized. European Journal of Operational Research 142 2 , 345-356. Elements of Decision Process Ad Hoc Decision-Making Comparative Risk Assessment Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Define problems Stakeholder input limited or nonexistent. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis 10:257-271. Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Pesticides A. The stakeholders consist of all the different people associated with the planning and decision process.