Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 1770-1831-Contributions in Christology. Consequently, in this context his primary concern is with the doctrine of the Trinity itself, in its abstract form: the 'immanent Trinity'. How fair this would be as a criticism of the original Stoics is another Hegel's christology 29 question: again, we are dealing here with ideal types. Indeed, Kundera tells us, 'Sabina's initial revolt against Communism was aesthetic rather than ethical in character. The particular individual on the other hand, as a particular individual - each with his or her own little bundle of finite experiences by contrast to ' the Unchangeable', 'the protean Changeable' — here becomes identified primarily with the opposite role: that of 'the unessential Being'. And this means that Feuerbach's polemic against false notions of divine transcendence takes on an altogether different significance from Hegel's critique of the theology of the Unhappy Consciousness.
Yet, at the same time, there is another aspect to it which may be seen as pulling in just the opposite direction - for here, superimposed upon the epistemological dualism of faith versus finite knowledge, we find a second dualism: a basic moral dualism of reason versus nature. It is true that the things Barth is most anxious to hear said, and to say, in relation to the Atonement, the Fall and the Creation, Hegel does not say. The possibility of so doing emerges precisely at the point where the Judging Consciousness drops its defences, acknowledging its ultimate one-ness with the Evil Consciousness, and where the Evil Consciousness reciprocates: for this is the essential content that now has to be unfolded in the form of religious Vorstellung, above all in terms of the Incarnation. In order to understand this, however, it seems to me that once again one really does have to go straight back to his analysis of what happens to our understanding of the Incarnation and Atonement when these events are viewed in the distorting mirror of the unsubdued Unhappy Consciousness. This comes out particularly in his account of the creation in the 1821 Lectures. Taylor reclaims Hegel's absolute as a process of infinite restlessness, and Zizek revisits the religious implications of Hegel's concept of letting go. Nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy has seen a move towards rejection of this prejudice, largely pioneered by Heidegger and Nietzsche.
The Unhappy Consciousness can be seen, he suggests, as a mentality very broadly typical of adolescence, for example in any culture. In his account the appearance of the Christian gospel features as a decisive turning point in the education of the human race; a definitive revelation of the true meaning of freedom. In order to comprehend the Concept one has to start from Being: the Logic traces the development in question here, in its purely abstract form. The relationship of this cosmic drama to the actual historical events in question — the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth, and the development of the Christian church on that basis - remains quite extraneous to the argument. For this has to do with his fundamental understanding of the Hegel's christology 23 inner truth of Christian dogma. It is no doubt also true that one can observe the distorting influence of the still resistant Unhappy Consciousness at work here, too, in the actual imagery the tradition has tended to employ in representation of the after-life: in the other-worldly - as opposed to world-transfiguring - character of that imagery; in its compensatory character; its reduction to consolation.
It is only by virtue of reflection that evil, as such, becomes a possibility; and in that sense one can indeed say that 'reflection itself is evil'. We have already seen just how fundamental a defect Hegel considered the institutions of slavery, in particular, to have been, in classical antiquity; and this is only one example. There is, he suggests, only one way, and that is precisely by recourse to the traditional — ' exclusive' — understanding of Christ's redemptive death, according to which that death is indeed a substitutionary sacrifice for all our sins, including even these: a miraculous event in which 'another does for us what we can neither now, nor ever do for ourselves, and does so, exactly in order that it should never again be demanded of us' p. And what I am interested in exploring here is the uniquely radical way in which Hegel attempts to do just that. . Nevertheless, it is unquestionably true that the inevitable tension here is much more sharply expressed and thought through in Hegel's exposition of the doctrine than in any previous exposition. In the 1824 version of the Lectures the main critical focus in the concluding section is on the former.
Thus, in terms of that contrast, the experience of forgiveness which Hegel is describing here might be said to be the experience of Romans 8: 33: 'Who will bring a charge against those whom God has chosen? Using plasticity to reformulate apocalypticism allows for a form of apocalyptic thinking that is immanent and materialist. It was perhaps especially the Jewish Platonism of Philo which suggested the way out: by affirming the identity-in difference of 'God as such' Theos auto with the emanating divine Logos - to whom all the concrete imagery in the Bible is referred - Philo provided for his Christian successors a readily adaptable model for the application of philosophical principle to scriptural exegesis. In this respect, indeed, Jacobi is even more radical than Kant or Fichte: for them the question of the validity of religious faith shrinks down into a narrow question about the logic of moral law, essentially abstracted from history; but for Jacobi by contrast it in effect disappears entirely - at any rate, as a matter for public discussion. In general, kitsch has to do with the affirmation of collective innocence - as, also, in the case of another group of circle dancers which Kundera describes, at a political demonstration in the west, facing the riot police: ' Their hearts are overflowing with an intense feeling of innocence: they are not united by a march, like soldiers or fascist commandos; they are united by a dance, like children. But, as I say, it is not Vorstellung he is criticizing here. Hegel S Political Theology Shanks Andrew can be very useful guide, and hegel s political theology shanks andrew play an important role in your products.
Only at the third level does the real issue at stake grow clear: for whereas both the two preceding stages, in their different ways, represent levels of consciousness at which the essential unhappiness of the Unhappy Consciousness is left unformulated, 'Here', as Hegel puts it, ' the enemy is met with in his most characteristic form. He also criticizes what, in a strict sense, from his point of view must appear as the fundamental misapplication to thought in this sphere, and so to the immanent Trinity as such, of the traditional Vorstellungen: The Trinity has been brought under the relationship of Father, Son, and Spirit. For fully to think through those claims must mean: not only a readiness to call every form of given moral ideology quite concretely into question, but also a truly impassioned concern to find some better spiritual basis for our living together, some more adequate form of embodiment for individual freedom in the ongoing life of a community. Such ecclesiastical kitsch, however, then has to develop strategies to cope with the abiding potential scandal of the cross. Seiler, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984 Science of Logic, 2 vols. Let us be quite clear, however, just exactly why Hegel wants to speak in such terms.
In fact, it is almost as if he wanted to present Hegel, somehow, as a cross between the two. The author shows Hegel's answer to be twofold. At several points earlier on in his discussion of the realm of 'Spirit' he has touched on the question of religion; but it is only here that he is ready to move on to discuss the truth of religion as such. Hegel pioneered the systematic study of comparative religion. Whilst Hegel's more sympathetic atheist commentators, siezing in particular on the concept of the Unhappy Consciousness, have tended to interpret it as an indication of his latent atheism — those who have wanted, on the contrary, to take his explicit professions of faith more seriously have, it seems to me, like Barth, all too often lapsed over to the opposite extreme. What the partisans of ecclesiastical kitsch need to do, though, is add to that uniqueness a certain extra uniqueness - a uniqueness not only of authority but also of nature — which will, as it were, sanitize the story by cordoning it off, rendering it surreal.
And yet especially when it comes to the Unhappy Consciousness passage one cannot help observing that Brito is still far more concerned, in general, to clarify the syllogistic form of Hegel's argument than he is to evaluate the underlying critical content of what Hegel is saying, or its practical implications. This drama of confession and forgiveness is decisively set in a context of freedom. Whereas they ground faith in God on the specific requirements of practical Reason, he grounds it simply on an 'immediate' knowledge. Life may be 30 Hegel's political theology meaningless - but, then, so what? It is true that Hegel nowhere offers any real answers. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the hegel s political theology shanks andrew gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. There can be no doubt that it would have to be very considerably adjusted in detail. Thus, 1 in his discussion of the problem posed by war crimes, Hegel's christology 69 Gollwitzer seems to envisage just three alternatives.
His actual term for that truth, as the ideal goal of philosophical discipline, is 'Absolute Knowing'. Rather, what this argument in effect provides is a programmatic formula for the whole critical enterprise of philosophical theology: namely, as the attempt systematically to retrace all the various actual experiences of Being, from which our idea of divine perfection in fact results. Kitsch causes two tears to flow in quick succession. In that sense, the Beautiful Soul remains 'unhappy'. But Hegel's preoccupation here is with the problem of the practical appropriation, or non-appropriation, of the saving truth of the gospel in terms of actual Christian self-understanding. Nor, indeed, should the seriousness of the underlying critique of Christian tradition as a whole suggested here be minimized.