Entrepreneurs who want to expand their operations in the future, and retain good relations to their extended families, are finding it difficult to make a trade-off between satisfying the short-term needs of family members and seeing to the long-term benefit of the company. Finding a qualified workforce was therefore not much of a problem for the entrepreneurs. And even during its term, there will be frequent changes in office. Nadvi and Schmitz, 1994; van Dijk and Rabellotti, 1997. Not surprisingly, considering Tanzania's socialist and centralized past, three-quarters of them had previously been state employees; many in high positions, from which they benefited by access to information and networking opportunities. Under these conditions it was rational for firms to internalize as many activities as possible.
In such cases, structural adjustment and deregulation will merely expose the weak, local economic systems to the full force of global competition, with severe consequences. The main exemptions have been conceded to the agricultural sector. In fact, low-price strategies in final products markets were not feasible in the high-inflation environment that existed until 1994 because customers just would not notice; shops adjusted their prices at different points in time, so that there were vast price differences for a given product between shops anyway, and customers were already quite annoyed with that. Given the importance of family relations in resource accumulation, particular attention will be paid to the close and often troublesome relationship between family and enterprise. Sverrisson, 1993; Nadvi and Schmitz, 1994 has not been systematically explored, and we suggest how that could be done. In essence, government agencies are reduced to working with existing collectives and organizations. If anything, it is the middle or meso-level concepts which provide a framework for the volume, and the chapters which address the micro- and macro-issues do so with a point of departure in the mesolevel, more or less explicitly.
Under the prevailing conditions, political action typically amounts to realizing a variety of projects ± in the sense of undertakings which are clearly located and limited in time, like constructing a new road or a new school what is called obras in Brazil. Active collective efficiency works in a bottom-up direction, from the responses of individual firms to competition, through inter-firm linkages and business networks, and up to the cluster level. In conclusion, the results are summarized and evaluated. The efficiency of legislation depends on the solution to this trade-off. If the first two types of explanation suggest a straightforward connection between central variables and take the structures in which they operate as given, the latter two types of explanation, in contrast, focus on the effects of historical change. However, no explanation predicts observed variations in the size and composition of the small enterprise sector particularly well, neither over time nor across countries.
Granovetter also argues against over-socialized conceptions of human behaviour such as that of James Duesenberry, where notions of a generalized morality provide the basis for explaining human behaviour. Several firms in all branches had their own internal training programmes in basic education and vocational training. The internal structure of these associations, where the president may be in a position to reign autocratically, is both an asset and a curse: a strong, visionary president may introduce radical change within a short period of time, but if a successor is weak everything may fall apart again. If he has high education he cannot do this. These changes, which took about five years to materialize, resulted essentially in three things. In my research I have investigated three of these clusters: textiles and clothing, metal engineering and electromechanical, and ceramic tiles. Financial assistance for venture creation may amount to substantial figures.
This is in turn influenced by the historical lessons learnt in a cluster, expressed in a collective mental model of how to run a business successfully. We could not investigate this as firms were extremely unwilling to discuss their financial situation, and published data show this for only a handful of firms. This is particularly relevant in the case of tiles in which individual consumers make fairly large investments at long intervals. Apart from that, chronically high inflation discouraged the formulation of long-term strategies and created an environment that penalized inter-firm transactions. On top of the recurring expenses, virtually all entrepreneurs provide ad hoc finance to extended family members ± paying for hospital fees, for example. Supported by a certain sense of superiority, particularly among the German immigrants, entrepreneurs sought to build firms that more or less matched European counterparts. The Kleinu industrial policy-making to the Federation of Industries which was, unfortunately, not prepared to deal with such a task as it lacked specialized professionals and adequate internal structures.
Øada: International Political Economy Series Recenze uživatelù Veškeré zobrazené ceny na bookshop. This flows from the sad state of democratic participation in most countries rather than from any intrinsic economic logic. However, while there was clustering, there were no, or only incipient, industrial district-like structures, according to Schmitz' definition Schmitz, 1995a: 10 which includes six distinct features: geographical and sectoral concentration of firms, predominance of small- and medium-sized firms, vertical disintegration at the firm level , co-operative competition, a socio-cultural identity which facilitates trust, and active self-help organization. Firms did not need to struggle in all areas at the same time in order to survive, because until 1990 Brazilian markets were closed to most products that could be manufactured locally. This chapter goes on to study whether there are specific inefficiencies in credit and capital markets in transition economies in eastern Europe, which affect financing opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises.
Traditional values are questioned and new affiliations, not necessarily based upon a common descent or geographic origin, are forged. Further, the main repositories of advanced technological capability, that is import substituting, government owned or parastatal companies, are folded down and very little has appeared instead. Lending is the beginning of a relationship. Those who can visualize the things. I wouldn't ask for it. JoÈrg Meyer-Stamer 33 Most managers do not see that foreign competitors are more agile, flexible, and customer-oriented.
Competition was limited in most product markets, and where it existed the main competitive weapon was heavy advertising rather than good quality or low prices. However, he is careful to emphasize that the current transition of entrepreneurial behaviour remains embedded in a largely traditional social context, which creates opportunities to develop trust, but also inopportune demands that must be coped with. It's not worth talking about. The data presented in Table 4. In the Czech Republic the fear of chain bankruptcy has caused lengthy delays in the implementation of legislation and exemptions for several sectors7 even beyond 1993. In any country, after all, the government is the largest, if not the most lucrative and quick-paying customer. It started on the basis of individual entrepreneurship of mostly German immigrants in the 1920s.
The main theme is how local economic cultures and economic networks in the South and in Eastern Europe are put under strain by global deregulation and how traditional and not so traditional but locally rooted structures of economic life adjust to deregulation or fail to do so. JoÈrg Meyer-Stamer 21 Figure 2. This booklet is an try and convey that there's way more to globalization than its floor manifestations. This is combined with innovative local 10 Introduction interpretation of technologies leading to flexible production practices. Now, these two cultures they are fighting in between.
Consequently firms could pursue idiosyncratic strategies rather than converging to some kind of best practice. However, most such interactive activities are not formalized in associations or organizations. By comparing bank interest rates on credits to the best and to the worst clients in Hungary small and medium enterprises usually fall in the latter category , the differential treatment is evident see Figure 4. In order to learn from experience, reflection is necessary, and the tools of reflection are theory, be it physics, materials science, Â rni Sverrisson and Meine Pieter van Dijk 15 A agronomy or accounting. In the Czech Republic a bankruptcy law was adopted in 1991, but was not enforced before 1993.