Bacus, A Gendered Past, provides a critical bibliography. Koloski-Ostrow for their vision and determination in bringing this volume to fruition. From the Copper Age on, the use of the dagger as a lowest-common- denominator male icon implies that an attitude of readiness for violence was required to enter the world of adult male politics, regardless of the degree to which violence was actually practiced. Perhaps, instead, the Barberini Suppliant has endured an unwanted violent attack, but remains vulnerable, and thus her bared breast should be viewed in the context of Category 4 - female victims of physical violence. Nevertheless, her contention - that the male idea of what is erotic establishes the social norm - was favorably received at the time. Ill, Centaur and Bride; pis 127, 130-1, Lapith maiden and Centaur.
In the more complex Iron Age gender was identified by the associated with gender activity male weapons and violence, female ornamentation and beauty. When we look again at the Wuppertal calyx-krater, we note that the dance step that the Sappho figure is executing in fact forces her to assume a posture in which she could not possibly play the barbitos. Examining Technology Through Production and Use Author: Jeffrey R. Proceedings of the 1990 Chacmool Conference, Alberta, Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, 1992, pp. For scholars, it introduces new, interdisciplinary points of view and suggests directions for further research.
For example, Aphrodite opens her chiton at the right shoulder to accommodate a small Eros on a red-figure Apulian squat aryballistic lekythos in the Museo Nazionale, Taranto of c. Reeder, Pandora: Women in Classical Greece, Baltimore and Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. In reality, far from destroying them, he sent them to his new capital of Constantinople, realizing the power of continuity. Rather than insisting on knowing their function and title, let us instead examine these figures merely as Athenians. Because classical works of art have traditionally served as paradigms of Western European values, tastes, and styles in the visual arts, the task of revealing the iconographic messages that naturalize gender and sexual roles is an important one. In Neolithic figurines and Copper and Bronze Age stelae, females are marked unambiguously through anatomical characteristics, primarily the breasts.
Confronting a civilization without precedent, some Spanish conquistadors and missionaries looked to the classical past for explanations and parallels were drawn between two great empires--the Aztec and the Roman. Are they intellectually and emotionally torn as they identify with, but cannot fully live, male voyeurism? Greco-Roman Art The premium placed on the classical body in the European tradition makes the art of ancient Greece and Rome a crucial factor in explorations of the ways in which gendered bodies and sexual difference are conceived of and communicated visually. In the Iron Age, both female and male symbolic registers expand greatly. Palagia eds , Personal Styles in Greek Sculpture, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Using an overly simplistic and not fully parallel but still highly effective slide comparison, she contrasted a nude female apple-seller holding a tray of apples up to her naked breasts, with a nude man holding a tray of bananas in the vicinity of his penis.
Empirically, it will review the archaeological sources on gender in art, skeletal biology, and mortuary studies, from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. The reasons are illuminated by the history of interpreting ancient images of women and of attitudes towards engendering ancient material culture. Instead, from the Copper Age, weapon symbolism appears. Many were criticizing their own field for reasons similar to Ridgway's although in far more detail ; see Preziosi, Rethinking Art History. We have been fortunate, also, in the expert overview offered by Natalie Kampen in an epilogue that skillfully assesses the various thematic strands and from them proposes yet further productive paths for thinking about gender and sexuality in classical antiquity. They sometimes also include belts, which, conversely, are rarely found on stelae with female symbols.
This volume accompanies the exhibition Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome, presented at the J. These four images do not deny Sappho's role as a singer-poet, but none of them emphasizes that role as clearly as they usually seem to in the case of the male poets. See also the recent appraisals by Stewart, supra, n. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, London, Allen Lane, 1977. I focus here largely on classical archaeology's relationship with art history and Mediterranean prehistory.
Lyons and Michael Bennett 11 History, Cultural Politics, and Identity 12 History of Sicily, 480—211 b. Whitehead eds , Sexual Meanings, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1981, pp. In the particular case studies of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman artworks that follow, specific examples from the Archaic to the Imperial periods illuminate the more subtle nuances of representing gender and sexuality in situations and contexts as varied as the private residence, the cult sanctuary, the public monument, and the grave. First, it shows clearly how the Italian Iron Age built on a prehistoric foundation of symbolism. Sissa, Greek Virginity, Cambridge, Mass.
Yet the female breast divested of clothes was a popular motive in Classical art, and the known representations may be divided into four categories. On various levels this formulation, visible in numerous instances of classical iconography, may locate Iron Age Italy as a precursor of Mediterranean patriarchy. Art evidence for spinning and weaving is limited; for instance, weaving appears in only one inset scene on a Daunian stele, 40 and is relatively uncommon in Etruscan tomb-paintings, sculpture, and minor arts. Smith, Women in Archaeology: A Feminist Critique, Canberra, Australian National University, 1993; Gero and Conkey, Engendering Archaeology, R. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods.
Hodder, Theory and Practice in Archaeology, New York, Routledge, 1992 especially pp. Finally, in the 1990s, there has been an enormous surge of interest in the study of complex social, sexual, and gendered relationships as evidenced in art and material culture. Whitehouse, Underground Religion: Cult and Culture in Prehistoric Italy, London, Accordia Research Center, 1992. Structuralism and semiotics also served to provide her with a descriptive language for images of women as signs and symptoms. Representations of women and men in ancient wall-painting, sculpture, figured ceramics, and coroplastic production -- whether clothed, partially disrobed, or completely naked -- are reconsidered from fresh perspectives.
Behind her, a smaller woman is escaping, gesticulating with her arms. Ruins have fascinated and intrigued viewers for centuries. Two Neolithic stelae are known, 14 both without overt signs of gender. White's Charlottes, we have worked to weave the threads of mutual interests and observations into the tapestry that is this volume. Moreover, we cannot assume there was unanimity on what central gender symbols meant; to the contrary, ambiguity was an inherent and necessary aspect of Iron- Age gender ideologies. Financial support for various aspects of the research was provided by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and the Department of Anthropology and Rackham School of Graduate Studies, University of Michigan.